The specific disorder of the learning is a development disorder that begins at school age, although it cannot be recognized until later, which involves continuous trouble learning key academic skills, including reading, writing and mathematics.
It is not simply the result of a lack of instruction or poor instruction, the key skills that can be affected include reading single words, reading comprehension, writing, spelling, mathematical calculation and solving mathematical problems, which can cause problems of learning in other academic subjects, such as history, science, and social studies, but those problems are attributable to difficulties in learning the underlying academic skills.
Specific learning disorder, if left untreated, can potentially cause problems throughout a person’s life, including lower academic performance, lower self-esteem, higher dropout rates, increased psychological distress, and overall poor mental health. as well as higher unemployment / underemployment rates.
Types of specific learning disorder
The Dyslexia is a hidden disability that affects believed around 10% of the population, 4% severely. It is the most common and is usually hereditary.
A student with dyslexia may mix letters within words and words within sentences while reading, they may also have difficulty spelling words correctly while writing; letter reversals are common. However, dyslexia is not just about literacy, although weaknesses are often the most visible sign, it affects the way information is processed, stored and retrieved, with memory problems, processing speed, perception of time, organization and sequencing.
Some may also have difficulty navigating a route, left, right, and compass directions.
It is a common disorder that affects fine and / or gross motor coordination in children and adults, this condition is formally recognized by international organizations, including the World Health Organization.
The Dyspraxia is distinct from other disorders engines such as cerebral palsy and stroke, the range of intellectual ability is in line with the general population. People can vary in the presentation of their difficulties; these can change over time depending on environmental demands and life experience and will persist into adulthood. An individual’s coordination difficulties can affect participation and functioning of life skills in education, work, and employment.
Children may have difficulty caring for themselves, writing, typing, riding bicycles, playing games, and other educational and recreational activities. In adulthood, many of these difficulties will continue, as well as learning new skills at home, in education and work, such as driving a car and DIY, there can be a variety of concurrent difficulties that can also have serious negative impacts. in daily life.
It is a difficulty in understanding mathematical concepts and symbols, characterized by the inability to understand simple number concepts and master basic arithmetic skills. It is likely that there will be difficulties in dealing with numbers at very elementary levels; This includes learning numerical facts and procedures, counting time, quantity, prices, and money.
Difficulties with arithmetic and math are also common with dyslexia.
Attention deficit disorder.
Signs of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder include inattention, restlessness, impulsivity, erratic, unpredictable, and inappropriate behavior, making inappropriate comments, or excessively interrupting. Some students unintentionally appear aggressive and most do not make effective use of comments.
If there is no hyperactivity, the term attention deficit disorder should be used, these individuals have particular problems staying focused, so they can appear dreamy and inattentive. Students with this condition are easily distracted, lose track of what they are doing, and have a poor ability to listen. By not paying attention to details, they can miss key points, often in conjunction with dyslexia.
Often associated with dyslexia, students may have difficulty understanding by listening, expressing themselves clearly using speech, reading, remembering directions, understanding spoken messages, and staying focused.
What are the severity levels of the specific learning disorder?
The disorder can vary in severity:
Mild: Some difficulties with learning in one or two academic areas,but may be able to compensate.
Moderate: Significant difficulties with learning, requiring some specialized teaching and some adaptations or support services.
Severe: Severe difficulties with learning, affecting several academic areas and requiring continuous intensive specialized teaching.
Specific learning disorder is more common in men, people with relatives with this disorder are at a higher risk of developing it. It is estimated that one third of people with learning disabilities also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Treatment of specific learning disorder
Early intervention is key in people with learning disabilities, if problems are identified early, treatment can be more effective, and children can avoid going through a prolonged period of academic failure before getting help.
Under federal law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, students with specific learning disabilities are eligible for special education services, the law requires that if a child is suspected of having a learning disorder, the school must provide an evaluation. Specific learning disorder is primarily treated through special education services.
While there is no cure for learning disorders, special education services can help children improve reading, writing, and math. Effective interventions involve systematic, intensive, and individualized instruction that can improve learning difficulties and / or help the individual use strategies to compensate for difficulties. Education for a person with this disorder often involves multimodal teaching that involves multiple senses.
Research has shown that the most effective treatments for reading disorder are structured, directed, and user-friendly strategies that address phonological awareness, decoding skills, comprehension, and fluency (rhythm).
Treatments for writing problems fall into two general areas: the writing process and the writing process. In school, students with writing problems can benefit from accommodations, such as using the computer to type instead of handwriting, and additional time on tests and written assignments.
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