What are Drugs | Types, Way of Consumption and Consequences

Drugs are substances that change the physical or mental state; the vast majority are used to treat medical conditions, both physical and mental. Some, however, are used outside of the medical setting for their effects on the mind. These are known as recreational drugs, and many of them are illegal.

Any chemical that you take affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin, and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body to your brain. Once inside the brain, drugs can change the messages your brain cells send to each other and the rest of the body. They interfere with your brain’s chemical signals: neurotransmitters that transfer signals across synapses.

Drug medication

A medicine or drug is taken to cure or alleviate any disease or medical condition symptoms. The user can also be a preventive medicine with future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.

The government usually regulates the dispensing of drugs in three categories:

  • Over-the-counter medications are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions.
  • A pharmacist dispenses over-the-counter medicines without a prescription.
  • Prescription drugs must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician.

In the UK, counter drugs are called pharmacy drugs which can only be sold in pharmacies that are registered and, of course, under the supervision of a pharmacist. The letter P on the label designates these drugs. The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country. Pharmaceutical companies generally produce drugs and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to make them.

Those that have expired patents or do not have are called generic drugs because they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the same owner.

Pharmaceutical drugs are generally classified as drugs. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, have the exact mechanism of action, the same related mode of action, or target the same disease or associated diseases.

Drug medication

Recreational drug use

The recreational use of drugs (whether legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through the alteration of the central nervous system to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug.

Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs, and drugs that have the potential for recreational use are often highly regulated. However, many recreational drugs are legal in many jurisdictions and widely accepted culturally. Cannabis is the most commonly used controlled recreational drug globally (as of 2012).

Its use in many countries is illegal, but it is used legally in several countries, usually because it can only be used for personal use. It can be used in the form of a marijuana leaf (herb) or the state of hashish resin. Marijuana is a milder form of cannabis than hashish.

There may be an age restriction on the use and purchase of legal recreational drugs. Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeinated products, and in some parts of the world, the legal use of drugs.

Several legal intoxicants, commonly called legal highs, are used recreationally, the most widely used being alcohol.

Drug administration

All medications can be administered through multiple routes, and many can be helped by more than one.

Bolus is administering a medication, drug, or another compound issued to increase its concentration in the blood to a practical level; it can be administered intravenously by intramuscular, intrathecal, or subcutaneous injection.

Inhaled (inhaled into the lungs) as an aerosol or dry powder. (This includes smoking a substance)

Injection as a solution, suspension or emulsion,  intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous.

Insufflation or inhalation into the nose.

As a liquid or solid, it is absorbed through the intestines.

Rectally as a suppository, which is absorbed through the rectum or colon.

Sublingually, it diffuses into the blood through the tissues under the tongue.

Topically, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this way can be administered locally or systemically.

Vaginally as a pessary, primarily to treat vaginal infections.

Why do teens use drugs?

A common misconception is that teens who experiment with drugs and alcohol are inherently “bad guys.” Many parents assume that teens experiment because they are rebellious and want to lash out, that may be why a small percentage of teens try drugs and alcohol today, but the dangerous trend is not that simple or one-sided. To understand us, you must put yourself in their shoes and imagine what they are experiencing.


One of the most common reasons teens start experimenting with drugs and alcohol is that they get bored and don’t have any deeper interests. They see drugs and alcohol as a hobby to explore. Try to give your teen more responsibilities or extracurricular activities to get involved in so they don’t have time to think about substance use.

A bonding experience

In their first year of high school, many teens are usually shy and have trouble making friends (especially at a new school with older students). They switch to drugs and alcohol to feel more secure or connected with a social group known to use these substances. This is not the same as direct peer pressure; It stems from the need to bond and make friends. Encouraging your children to join clubs and sports can help them healthily make friends.


Some teens turn to drugs and alcohol as a form of escapism. When they are sad or depressed, they see these substances as a way to forget and feel happier; it is an attempt to self-medicate. You may see a negative attitude like “just being a teenager,” but there may be a more profound depression within you.


Curiosity is a natural part of life, and teens are not immune to urgency. Many teens start experimenting with drugs and alcohol simply because they are curious and want to know how they feel. As teenagers, they are deluded that they are invincible – even if they know drugs are harmful, they don’t think anything wrong can happen to them. Educating your child about the repercussions of drug and alcohol abuse can extinguish this curiosity.


Teenage girls often turn to harder drugs, like cocaine, for a quick way to lose weight. Especially during high school, girls become more body-conscious and may despair of losing weight and attract the attention of popular boys. These young women may also be struggling with a concurrent eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia.


Many teens are very stressed during high school with a busy schedule of advanced classes and extracurricular activities. Lack of coping skills can lead them to seek an artificial method of dealing with stress, then turn to drugs like marijuana to relax.

Low self-esteem

In adolescents, especially between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, low self-esteem due to physical appearance or a lack of friends can lead to self-destructive behavior. Teenagers are pressured by the media, bullies, and often family to act and look a certain way, and they lose self-confidence if they don’t meet those high standards. Drugs and alcohol seem like an easy way out of this reality.

Improved experiences

Drugs and alcohol are often used to enhance specific experiences. Cocaine and Adderall are commonly used to improve energy and focus when you feel like you can’t do something on your own and need a little help. Ecstasy can be used for lack of inhibition and for a better sexual experience. Marijuana and alcohol are often used to relax and feel more comfortable in social situations.

Group pressure

We all learn about this and think that it will not happen to us, but often the classic story of peer pressure is why they experiment with drugs and alcohol. This peer pressure occurs most often between the ages of sixteen and eighteen when teens begin to think that “everyone else is doing it,” so we should do it too.

At a party, after prom, with friends or other important people, these are everyday situations where you feel like you have to come together to fit in. This peer pressure is more evident than pressure to make friends and is sometimes instigates by old friends.

Now or never

Teenagers often feel a social imperative to experiment and experience all they can while still young. They think that it is a “now or never” situation. They have to try drugs now before they become adults and have responsibilities; they feel that they are missing out if they don’t try now. They think it won’t be a big problem if they try everything once … or twice …


If there is a family history of drug addiction or alcoholism, adolescents may be genetically predisposed to experiment with drugs and alcohol and become addicted. Although poor choices are part of being a teenager, you can’t blame them for genes, especially if they haven’t been educated. If there is a family history of addiction, be honest and open up a dialogue about the real risks of substance abuse.

Types of drugs


Stimulants act on the central nervous system and are associated with feelings of extreme well-being and increased mental and motor activity. Examples include cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamines (speed), and ecstasy (also a hallucinogen).


They are known as “paddles” and “speed,” as they accelerate the messages circulate between the brain and the body. Doctors prescribe amphetamines to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (when a person has an uncontrollable desire to sleep). Amphetamines generally come in pill form.


It is a synthetic and psychoactive drug similar to stimulant amphetamine, affecting a more comprehensive range of users and ethnic groups. The short-term effects of ecstasy include mental stimulation, emotional warmth, euphoria, empathy for others, and increased physical energy.


It is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the native South American coca plant. It acts as a local anesthetic and a powerful general stimulant on the brain.


Depressants are chemicals that slow down the central nervous system and suppress brain activity, leading to anxiety relief. The most common depressants are alcohol and cannabis. Others include barbiturates and benzodiazepines (eg, valium, temazepam).


It is a depressant sold as beer, wine, or liquor. Although many teenagers consider it fun, it is hazardous. The effects of alcohol on your body depend on your size, weight, gender, age, and the amount of food you have eaten.


It is the generic term for the psychoactive drug known as marijuana, dope, herb, etc. The technical name for the cannabis plant is cannabis Sativa.


They are a type of medicine known as tranquilizers or minor tranquilizers instead of the main tranquilizers used to treat psychosis. Family names for these drugs include diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), clonazepam (Klonopin), and alprazolam (Xanax).

These are some of the most frequently prescribed medications in psychiatry because they have several properties useful in many clinical situations. They delay the central nervous system; in addition to their effects on reducing anxiety levels, they are also used as sedatives and anticonvulsant medications. They have muscle-relaxing properties. They are used medically to reduce anxiety, help people sleep, and relax the body. They should only be prescribed for short periods as there is a risk of addiction.

Opiates and Opioids

They provide pain relief, euphoria, sedation, and in increasing doses, induce coma. Examples include heroin, morphine, opium, methadone, dipipanone, and pethidine.


It is an opioid drug synthesized from morphine, a natural substance extracted from the seed of the Asian poppy plant. Heroin generally appears as a white or brown powder or a sticky black substance, known as “black tar heroin.”


It is used medically as a pain reliever and as a substitute for addiction to narcotics such as heroin. It has similar effects to morphine, but in the case of methadone, they last much longer. This can increase the risk of overdose leading to death; However, methadone may reduce the craving for other opioid drugs. The patient’s addiction can transfer from the initial medication to the methadone itself.


Hallucinogens cause changes in a person’s perception of reality. These include cannabis, LSD, ecstasy, and psilocybin (magic mushrooms).


It stands for lysergic acid diethylamide and is made from ergot, a fungus that grows on rye. LSD dissolves in water and is odorless, colorless, and tasteless, one of the most potent hallucinogenic and mood-altering chemicals.

LSD users may experience flashbacks. A flashback is when the user experiences a short “trip” long after the effects of the drug have worn off. A person may experience flashbacks days, months, or years after using the medicine. These flashback trips can be triggered by stress, drowsiness, or other drugs like cannabis.

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Hello, how are you? My name is Georgia Tarrant, and I am a clinical psychologist. In everyday life, professional obligations seem to predominate over our personal life. It's as if work takes up more and more of the time we'd love to devote to our love life, our family, or even a moment of leisure.