What is bullying? – Types, Effects, Causes, Roles and Treatments

Bullying involves one or more persons repeatedly and deliberately doing things that make you angry, afraid, or hurt someone; a person or a group of people may feel they have more power than others, so they use harmful words or actions to intimidate them, it can affect someone’s feelings and emotions.

It can take place almost anywhere, including the schoolyard, the classroom, on the way to a location, online, on the phone, at home, and at work – basically anywhere people hang out. It can be related to almost anything, coming in many forms. For example, it can include physical, verbal, and social aggression, and it can be in person or online.

It is essential to know that bullying is not okay; it is not just “a normal part of growing up,” There is always help available to make things better. If you are having trouble with it, seeking support is an excellent way to help you overcome the adverse effects and find ways to stop the bullying.

What is bullying?

It is the use of force and threat to abuse, intimidate or dominate others aggressively; the behavior is often repeated and is habitual. It is a very enduring style of behavior, mainly because bullies get what they want, at least initially; those are made, not born, and occur at a young age if the normal aggression of 2-year-olds is not driven well.

Many studies show that bullies lack prosocial behavior, are not preoccupied with anxiety, and do not understand the feelings of others. Usually viewed quite positively, those who chronically bully have strained relationships with parents and peers.

Each time, children grow up without the kinds of experiences that lead to the development of social skills, and free play has been on the decline. However, by playing with peers, without adult supervision, children develop the skills that make them loved by their older peers and learn to solve problems.

Rationalizations for such behavior sometimes include differences in social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body languagepersonality, reputation, lineage, strength, size, or ability.

Bullying can be defined in many different ways; the UK does not have a legal definition, while some states in the US have laws against it. A culture of bullying can develop in any context in which humans interact. This includes school, family, workplace, home, and neighborhoods. The leading platform is on social media websites.

Types of bullying

When most people think of bullying, they imagine children hitting, kicking, and hitting each other, but physical bullying is just one type of bullying that children participate in. There are six main types; here is an overview of the six most common types of bullying found in schools.


Physical harassment or aggressive physical bullying involves repeated hitting, kicking, tripping, blocking, shoving, and touching in unwanted and inappropriate ways. Many children don’t tell their parents when it happens, so watch out for possible warning signs like unexplained cuts, scratches or bruises, missing or damaged clothing, or frequent complaints of headaches and stomachaches.

In physical harassment, the primary weapon the stalker uses is his body when attacking his target. Sometimes youth groups will target and alienate a classmate due to some adolescent bias; this can quickly lead to a situation where classmates are yelling, torturing, and beating them, this will often escalate over time, and it can lead to a tragic ending. Therefore you must stop quickly to avoid any escalation.


Verbal harassment, or intimidation with cruel words, involves insults, threats, and disrespectful comments about someone’s attributes (appearance, religion, ethnic origin, disability, sexual orientation, etc.). Typically, verbal aggressors will use relentless insults to belittle, demean and hurt another person; they choose their goals based on how they look, act, or behave; it is also common for verbal aggressors to target children with special needs.

Children may withdraw, sulk or show a change in appetite; they may tell you something hurtful that someone has said about them and ask you if you think it is true.

As a result, it is the word of one person against the word of another person, and many adults feel that the things that children say do not affect others significantly, so they tell the victim to “ignore it.” But research has shown that they have severe consequences and can leave deep emotional scars.

social or relational

Relational bullying, or intimidation with exclusionary tactics, deliberately prevents someone from joining or being part of a group, whether at a lunch table, game, sport, or social activity.

This is any bullying done to damage someone’s reputation or social position that can also be linked to the techniques included in physical and verbal harassment. Relational bullying can be used to improve your social status and control others; unlike physical bullying, which is obvious, relational bullying is not open and can continue for a long time without being noticed.

Notice mood swings, isolation from groups, and a shift toward being lonely more than usual. Girls are more likely than boys to experience social exclusion and non-verbal or emotional bullying; the pain can be as intense as physical bullying and last even longer.


Cyberbullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass or attack another person; it is a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites (Facebook), text messages, and cell phones.

Watch if your child spends more time online (visiting social media pages or texting) but seems sad and anxious afterward. Even though you are reading painful things on your computer, tablet, or phone, this may be your only social outing. Also, note if you have trouble sleeping, ask to stay in school or not, or withdraw from activities you once did. Love.


Sexual harassment is a severe problem that must be addressed; however, there is no official definition; it is a behavior, physical or non-physical, in which sexuality or gender is used as a weapon against another. Sexual harassment is any behavior that degrades someone, alienates someone through sexual language, gestures, or violence, and victimizes someone because of their appearance; it is also pressure to act promiscuously and act in a way that makes people uncomfortable. the rest.

These behaviors occur in and out of school, social groups, and online. It is as severe as any form of hate crime and should be treated as such by parents, teachers, and society.


Prejudicial bullying is based on prejudices that tweens and teens have towards people of different races, religions, or sexual orientations. When harmful bullying occurs, children target others who are different from them and single them out; this type is severe and can open the door to hate crimes; every time a child is bullied because of their sexual orientation, race, or religion, it must be reported.

Effects of Bullying

Anyone who has experienced bullying knows how annoying it is; we can feel lonely, insecure, fearful, stressed, humiliated, angry, embarrassed, and rejected. We often think that there is no escape and that we can do things to fit in, like change our appearance or act differently, and sometimes we may want to hurt others, or ourselves, for that.

Research shows that being bullied can have severe effects on a young person’s physical and mental health and performance in school and at work, which can continue to affect adults. Experiencing bullying can also increase the risk that someone will develop depression and anxiety in the future; it can be traumatic, mainly when carried out by friends or colleagues since these relationships are significant in a young person’s life.

Bullying can be associated with significantly serious problems; teens who bully are at higher risk of engaging in criminal behavior, including vandalism and violence inside and outside of school; they are also at risk for substance abuse and dropping out of school. Victims of these behaviors also tend to develop or increase their severity of anxiety; abusers and victims tend to experience depression more than their peers who have not been involved, leading to academic problems, frequent absences from school, loneliness, and social isolation.

Research shows that bullies and their victims are also at risk for having attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder, people who were bullied as children are at risk of having less social support during adulthood, and those who were bullied / victims during childhood they may have poorer physical and financial health, antisocial behavior, and be younger parents than bullies. They have never been victims.

Victims in the workplace may experience decreased job performance, more absences, and less job satisfaction. Ultimately, it can be the cause of higher staff turnover. People who are both victims and perpetrators of bullying appear to be more vulnerable to experiencing both internalizing symptoms (e.g., loneliness, depression, and anxiety) and externalizing (eg, antisocial).

Being bullied or bullied has been found to increase the risk of self-harm and suicidal thoughts and actions in boys and girls. However, research indicates that the risk of suicidal thoughts and attempts appears to be higher for victims of bullying girls and girls; no matter how infrequent bullying is, the risk of suicidal thoughts increases in bullies and bullying boys—victims when bullying occurs repeatedly.

What are the causes and risk factors of bullying?

There are many reasons why someone may bully someone else; they may feel powerless themselves, have low self-esteem, and may have suffered bullying or violence. They can use bullying to feel more potent in front of others, to make them feel better about themselves.

The behavior can occur due to jealousy, lack of knowledge, fear, or misunderstanding. Sometimes people bully others because they feel threatened in their social group and try to feel more secure. The person who harasses others may have a lot of social power within their group but maybe detrimentally use this to hurt others.

Risk factors for being a victim include having a shared understanding of emotional or social interactions and a tendency to get angry quickly or suffer from anxiety or depression. The victim’s actual or perceived obesity is also a risk factor; being underweight is slightly associated with being bullied.

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender youth are victims compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Children with disabilities are immigrants, or high achieving minorities are also more vulnerable to being bullied.

Roles young people play

Situations involving bullying are often more complex than they appear; three widely recognized roles in bullying situations are victim, bully, and bystander. Bullying situations are rarely straightforward; youth who are victims can also act as bullies in some circumstances.

Youth bystanders can exacerbate a bullying situation or intervene to stop it; those who make the bullying worse do so either by participating or providing the bully with an encouraging audience. On the other hand, helpful bystanders stand up for the victim when they see bullying happening or get someone else who can help.

Be careful with labeling; although we use the terms ‘victim’, ‘bully,’ and ‘bystander’ to refer to young people’s roles, it is essential to consider the impact these labels can have on young people’s identities. Many researchers and educators believe that such labeling sends a message that behavior cannot change.

Many factors can influence a young person’s behavior, such as peers, family situation, and school climate. These terms are used for simplicity; we think it is better to focus on behaviors rather than labels.

What are the treatment options for victims of bullying?

Child development professionals suggest that if parents think their child is being bullied, they should take it seriously and encourage them to talk about it. Staying calm, supporting, and reassuring young people that they are not to blame for their victimization can go a long way to making the victim feel comfortable enough to talk about it.

The parent should try to get details about the circumstances and who is involved and teach the parent how to respond to being bullied assertively without getting angry. The child may also find it helpful to stay with other students and a teacher so that the bully has fewer opportunities to engage in the behavior. Different ways to stop bullying in schools include contacting and staying in touch with the school to seek their help in alleviating bullying.

In addition to directly addressing bullying, victims can benefit by participating in activities that enhance their confidence, self-esteem, and overall emotional strength, whether it be sports, music, or other extracurricular activities. Participating in such activities can also help young people build friendships and improve their social skills; professional help in psychotherapy and treatment with psychiatric medications may be necessary if the victim of bullying has significant emotional symptoms that interfere with their ability to function that rise to a diagnosable mental health condition.


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Hello, how are you? My name is Georgia Tarrant, and I am a clinical psychologist. In everyday life, professional obligations seem to predominate over our personal life. It's as if work takes up more and more of the time we'd love to devote to our love life, our family, or even a moment of leisure.